War On Red Meat


Articles About Red Meat & Mortality

Mortality from different causes associated with meat, heme iron, nitrates, and nitrites in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study: population based cohort study https://www.bmj.com/content/357/bmj.j1957

Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Feb 1;179(3):282-9. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt261. Epub 2013 Oct 22. - Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. - Larsson SC, Orsini N. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24148709

High red meat intake and all-cause cardiovascular and cancer mortality: is the risk modified by fruit and vegetable intake? Bellavia A1, Stilling F2, Wolk A2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27557655

Food groups and risk of all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies1,2 - Lukas Schwingshackl3,*, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28446499

Another Study Associates Red Meat and Early Death - Heme iron and nitrate additives drove association in population-based study https://www.patientcareonline.com/cardiovascular-diseases/another-study-associates-red-meat-and-early-death

Red Meat Consumption and MortalityResults From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22412075 Micha R, Wallace SK, Mozaffarian D. Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation. 2010;121(21):2271-2283PubMedArticle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20479151

Zheng W, Lee SA. Well-done meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and cancer risk. Nutr Cancer. 2009;61(4):437-446PubMedArticle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2769029/

Fraser GE. Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(3):(suppl) 532S-538SPubMed https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10479227

Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, et al. Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(3):(suppl) 516S-524SPubMed https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10479225

Sinha R, Cross AJ, Graubard BI, Leitzmann MF, Schatzkin A. Meat intake and mortality: a prospective study of over half a million people. Arch Intern Med. 2009;169(6):562-571PubMedArticle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19307518

van Dam RM, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB. Dietary fat and meat intake in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(3):417-424PubMedArticle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11874924

Fung TT, Schulze M, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Dietary patterns, meat intake, and the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(20):2235-2240PubMedArticle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15534160

Hu FB, Rimm E, Smith-Warner SA, et al. Reproducibility and validity of dietary patterns assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(2):243-249PubMed https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9989687

Salvini S, Hunter DJ, Sampson L, et al. Food-based validation of a dietary questionnaire: the effects of week-to-week variation in food consumption. Int J Epidemiol. 1989;18(4):858-867PubMedArticle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2621022

Rich-Edwards JW, Corsano KA, Stampfer MJ. Test of the National Death Index and Equifax Nationwide Death Search. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;140(11):1016-1019PubMed https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7985649

Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Rimm E, et al. Dietary fat and coronary heart disease: a comparison of approaches for adjusting for total energy intake and modeling repeated dietary measurements. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(6):531-540PubMedArticle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10084242

Qiu W, Rosner B. Measurement error correction for the cumulative average model in the survival analysis of nutritional data: application to Nurses' Health Study. Lifetime Data Anal. 2010;16(1):136-153PubMedArticle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19757039

Bernstein AM, Sun Q, Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, Willett WC. Major dietary protein sources and risk of coronary heart disease in women. Circulation. 2010;122(9):876-883PubMedArticle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20713902

Ascherio A, Willett WC, Rimm EB, Giovannucci EL, Stampfer MJ. Dietary iron intake and risk of coronary disease among men. Circulation. 1994;89(3):969-974PubMed https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8124837

Klipstein-Grobusch K, Grobbee DE, den Breeijen JH, Boeing H, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Dietary iron and risk of myocardial infarction in the Rotterdam Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1999;149(5):421-428PubMedArticle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10067901

van der A DL, Peeters PH, Grobbee DE, Marx JJ, van der Schouw YT. Dietary haem iron and coronary heart disease in women. Eur Heart J. 2005;26(3):257-262PubMedArticle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15618055

Qi L, van Dam RM, Rexrode K, Hu FB. Heme iron from diet as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(1):101-106PubMedArticle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17192341

Menke A, Muntner P, Fernández-Real JM, Guallar E. The association of biomarkers of iron status with mortality in US adults [published online ahead of print February 15, 2011]. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc DisArticle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3138865/

World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research. Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: American Institute for Cancer Research; 2007 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10378216

Hughes R, Cross AJ, Pollock JRA, Bingham S. Dose-dependent effect of dietary meat on endogenous colonic N-nitrosation. Carcinogenesis. 2001;22(1):199-202PubMedArticle https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11159760

Skog K, Steineck G, Augustsson K, Jägerstad M. Effect of cooking temperature on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried meat products and pan residues. Carcinogenesis. 1995;16(4):861-867 PubMedArticle

Sinha R, Rothman N, Salmon CP, et al. Heterocyclic amine content in beef cooked by different methods to varying degrees of doneness and gravy made from meat drippings. Food Chem Toxicol. 1998;36(4):279-287

Cross AJ, Sinha R. Meat-related mutagens/carcinogens in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Environ Mol Mutagen. 2004;44(1):44-55

Cross AJ, Pollock JR, Bingham SA. Haem, not protein or inorganic iron, is responsible for endogenous intestinal N-nitrosation arising from red meat. Cancer Res. 2003;63(10):2358-2360

Sesink AL, Termont DS, Kleibeuker JH, Van der Meer R. Red meat and colon cancer: the cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects of dietary heme. Cancer Res. 1999;59(22):5704-5709 PubMed

Huang X. Iron overload and its association with cancer risk in humans: evidence for iron as a carcinogenic metal. Mutat Res. 2003;533(1-2):153-171 PubMedArticle

Epidemiological studies related to coronary heart disease: characteristics of men aged 40-59 in seven countries. Keys A, Aravanis C, Blackburn HW, Van Buchem FS, Buzina R, Djordjević BD, Dontas AS, Fidanza F, Karvonen MJ, Kimura N, Lekos D, Monti M, Puddu V, Taylor HL Acta Med Scand Suppl. 1966; 460():1-392. Article

Mediterranean diet and the incidence of cardiovascular disease: a Spanish cohort. Martínez-González MA, García-López M, Bes-Rastrollo M, Toledo E, Martínez-Lapiscina EH, Delgado-Rodriguez M, Vazquez Z, Benito S, Beunza JJ Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Apr; 21(4):237-44. PubArticle

Influence of selection versus lifestyle on risk of fatal cancer and cardiovascular disease among Seventh-day Adventists. Phillips RL, Kuzma JW, Beeson WL, Lotz T Am J Epidemiol. 1980 Aug; 112(2):296-314. Article.

A systematic review of the evidence supporting a causal link between dietary factors and coronary heart disease. Mente A, de Koning L, Shannon HS, Anand SS Arch Intern Med. 2009 Apr 13; 169(7):659-69. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19364995
Unprocessed red and processed meats and risk of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes--an updated review of the evidence.[Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2012] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23001745 https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/cutting-red-meat-for-a-longer-life

Articles About Meat & Antibiotic /Antimicrobial Resistance
Climate Change Could Supercharge Threat of Antibiotic Resistance 
Are antibiotics turning livestock into superbug factories? | Science

The Overuse of Antibiotics in Food Animals Threatens Public Health
Lancet Infect Dis. 2013 Dec;13(12):1057-98. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70318-9. Epub 2013 Nov
Antibiotic resistance-the need for global solutions. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24252483

Perseverance, persistence, and the Chennai declaration. [Lancet Infect Dis. 2013]

Light at the end of the tunnel of antibiotic development. [Lancet Infect Dis. 2013]

Antibiotic effectiveness and child survival. [Lancet Infect Dis. 2013]

Antibiotic resistance in Ghana. [Lancet Infect Dis. 2013]

Antibiotic action: helping deliver action plans and strategies. [Lancet Infect Dis. 2013]

Antibiotic resistance needs global solutions. [Lancet Infect Dis. 2014] DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70318-9

Articles About Meat & Climate Change
Avoiding meat and dairy is ‘single biggest way’ to reduce your impact on Earth

Biggest analysis to date reveals huge footprint of livestock - it provides just 18% of calories but takes up 83% of farmland https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/may/31/avoiding-meat-and-dairy-is-single-biggest-way-to-reduce-your-impact-on-earth

Meat and fish multinationals 'jeopardising Paris climate goals' 30 May 2018
Meat and fish multinationals 'jeopardising Paris climate goals' 7 May 2018
What is the true cost of eating meat? 11 Dec 20171,757

Meat tax ‘inevitable’ to beat climate and health crises, says report 12 Oct 2017

Proof that sustainable meat and dairy farming can work Organic consumers avoiding processed and red meat, sales show 23 Feb 201623

Organic consumers avoiding processed and red meat, sales show Meat tax far less unpalatable than government thinks, research finds23 Nov 2015581

Meat tax far less unpalatable than government thinks, research finds

Giving up beef will reduce carbon footprint more than cars, says expert 21 Jul 2014275

Halving meat and dairy consumption could slash farming emissions 25 Apr 2014221